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Can. IIII.
To sinfull hous of Pryde, Duessa
guydes the faithfull knight,
Where brothers death to wreak Sansioy
doth chaleng him to fight.
[1]
Young knight, what euerever that dost armes professe,
And through long labours huntest after fame,
Beware of fraud, beware of ficklenesse,
In choice, and chaunge of thy deare louedloved Dame,
Least thou of her belieuebelieve too lightly blame,
And rash misweening doe thy hart remoueremove:
For vntounto knight there is no greater shame,
1.8. Then: ThanThenThan lightnesse and inconstancie in louelove,
That doth this Redcrosse knights ensample plainly proue.prove. proueprove
[2]
Who after that he had faire VnaUna lorne,
Through light misdeeming of her loialtie,
And falſefalse fale falſefalse Duessa in her sted had borne,
Called Fidess', and so supposd to be;
Long with her traueildtraveild, till at last they see
A goodly building, brauelybravely garnished,
The house of mightie Prince it seemd to be:
And towards it a broad high way that led,
All bare through peoples feet, which thether traueiledtraveiled.
[3]
Great troupes of people traueildtraveild thetherward
Both day and night, of each degree and place,
But few returned, hauinghaving scaped hard,
With balefull beggery, or soule disgrace,
Which euerever after in most wretched cacecarecaſecase ,
Like loathsome lazars, by the hedges lay.
Thether Duessa badd him bend his pace:
For she is wearie of the toilsom way,
And also nigh consumed is the lingring day.
[4]
A stately Pallace built of squared bricke,
Which cunningly was without morter laid,
Whose wals were high, but nothing strong, nor thick
And golden foile all ouerover them displaid,
That purest skye with brightnesse they dismaid:
High lifted vpup were many loftie towres,
And goodly galleries far ouerover laid,
Full of faire windowes, and delightful bowres;
And on the top a Diall told the timely howres.
[5]
It was a goodly heape for to behould,
And spake the praises of the workmans witt;
But full great pittie, that so faire a mould
Did on so weake foundation euerever sitt:
For on a sandie hill, that still did flitt,
And fall away, it mounted was full hie,
That eueryevery breath of heauenheaven shaked itt:
And all the hinder partes, that few could spie,
Were ruinous and old, but painted cunningly.
[6]
ArriuedArrived there they passed in forth right;
For still to all the gates stood open wide,
Yet charge of them was to a Porter hight
Cald MaluenùMalvenù, who entrance none denide:
Thence to the hall, which was on eueryevery side
With rich array and costly arras dight:
Infinite sortes of people did abide
There waiting long, to win the wished sight
Of her, that was the Lady of that Pallace bright.
[7]
By them they passe, all gazing on them round,
And to the Presence mount; whose glorious vew
Their frayle amazed senses did confound:
In liuingliving Princes court none euerever knew
Such endlesse richesse, and so ſumpteoussumpteous ſumptuoussumptuous shew;
Ne Persia selfe, the nourse of pompous pride
Like euerever saw. And there a noble crew
Of Lords and Ladies stood on eueryevery side,
Which with their presence fayre, the place much beautifide.
[8]
High aboueabove all a cloth of State was spred,
And a rich throne, as bright as sunny day,
On which there sate most brauebrave embellished
With royall robes and gorgeous array,
A mayden Queene, that shone as Titans ray,
In glistring gold, and perelesse pretious stone;
Yet her bright blazing beautie did assay
To dim the brightnesse of her glorious throne,
As enuyingenvying her selfe, that too exceeding shone.
[9]
Exceeding shone, like Phœbus fayrest childe,
That did presume his fathers fyrie wayne,
And flaming mouthes of steedes vnwontedunwonted wilde
Through highest heauenheaven with weaker hand to rayne;
Proud of such glory and aduancementadvancement vayne,
While flashing beames do daze his feeble eyen,
He leauesleaves the welkin way most beaten playne,
And rapt with whirling wheeles, inflames the skyen,
With fire not made to burne, but fayrely for to shyne.
[10]
So proud she shyned in her princely state,
Looking to heauenheaven; for earth she did disdayne,
And sitting high; for lowly she did hate:
Lo vnderunder neath her scornefull feete, was layne
A dreadfull Dragon with an hideous trayne,
And in her hand she held a mirrhour bright,
Wherein her face she often vewed fayne,
And in her selfe-lou'dselfe-lov'd semblance tooke delight;
For she was wondrous faire, as any liuingliving wight.
[11]
Of griesly Pluto she the daughter was,
And sad Proserpina the Queene of hell;
Yet did she thinke her pearelesse worthwroth to pas
That parentage, with pride so did she swell,
And thundring IoveJove, that high in heauenheaven doth dwell,
And wield the world, she claymed for her syre,
Or if that any else did IoueJove excell:
For to the highest she did still aspyre,
Or if ought higher were 11.9. then: thanthenthan that, did it desyre.
[12]
And proud Lucifera men did her call,
That made her selfe aselfe Queene, and crownd to be,
Yet rightfull kingdome she had none at all,
Ne heritage of natiuenative soueraintiesoveraintie,
But did vsurpeusurpe with wrong and tyrannie
VponUpon the scepter, which she now did hold;
Ne ruld her RealmeRealmes with lawes, but pollicie,
And strong aduizementadvizement of six wisards old,
That with their counsels bad her kingdome did vpholduphold.
[13]
Soone as the ElfinElfin ElfingElfing knight in presence came,
And false Duessa seeming Lady fayre,
A gentle Husher, Vanitie by name
Made rowme, and passage for them did prepaire:
So goodly brought them to the lowest stayre
Of her high throne, where they on humble knee
Making obeysaunce; did the cause declare,
Why they were come, her roiall state to see,
To proueprove the wide report of her great MaiesteeMajestee.
[14]
With loftie eyes, halfe loth to looke so lowe,
She thancked them in her disdainefull wise,
Ne other grace vouchsafed them to showe
Of Princesse worthy, scarse them bad arise.
Her Lordes and Ladies all this while deuisedevise
ThemseluesThemselves to setten forth to straungers sight:
Some frounce their curled heare in courtly guise,
Some prancke their ruffes, and others trimly dight
Their gay attyre: each others greater pride does spight.
[15]
Goodly they all that knight doe entertayne,
Right glad with him to hauehave increast their crew;
But to Duess' each one himselfe did payne
All kindnesse and faire courtesie to shew;
For in that court whylome her well they knew:
Yet the stout Faery mongst the middest crowd
Thought all their glorie vaine in knightly vew,
And that great Princesse too exceeding prowd,
That to strange knight no better countenance allowd.
[16]
Suddein vprisethupriseth from her stately place
The roiall Dame, and for her coche doth call;
All hurtlen forth, and she with princely pace,
As faire Aurora in her purple pall,
Out of the East the dawning day doth call:
So forth she comes: her brightnes brode doth blaze;
The heapes of people thronging in the hall,
Doe ride each other, vponupon her to gaze:
Her glorious glitterandglitter and light doth all mens eies amaze.
[17]
So forth she comes, and to her coche does clyme,
Adorned all with gold, and girlonds gay,
That seemd as fresh as Flora in her prime,
And strouestrove to match, in roiall rich array,
Great IunoesJunoes golden chayre, the which they say
The Gods stand gazing on, when she does ride
To IouesJoves high hous through heauensheavens bras pauedpaved way
Drawne of fayre Pecocks, that excell in pride,
And full of Argus eyes their tayles dispredden wide.
[18]
But this was drawne of six vnequallunequall beasts,
On which her six sage CounſelloursCounsellours CoſunelloursCosunellours The firſt Booke of CounſelloursCounsellours did ryde,
Taught to obay their bestiall beheasts,
With like conditions to their kindes applyde:
Of which the first, that all the rest did guyde,
Was sluggish Idlenesse the nourse of sin;
VponUpon a slouthfull Asse he chose to ryde,
Arayd in habit blacke, and amis thin,
Like to an holy Monck, the seruiceservice to begin.
[19]
And in his hand his Portesse still he bare,
That much was worne, but therein little redd,
For of deuotiondevotion he had little care,
Still drownd in sleepe, and most of his daies dedd;
Scarse could he once vpholduphold his heauieheavie hedd,
To looken, whether it were night or day:
May seeme the wayne was very euillevill ledd,
When such an one had guiding of the way,
That knew not, whether right he went, or else astray.
[20]
From worldly cares himselfe he did esloyne,
And greatly shunned manly exercise,
From euerieeverie worke he chalenged essoyne,
For contemplation sake: yet otherwise,
His life he led in lawlesse riotise;
By which he grew to grieuousgrievous malady;
For in his lustlesse limbs through euillevill guise
A shaking feuerfever raignd continually:
Such one was Idlenesse; first of this company.
[21]
And by his side rode loathsome Gluttony,
Deformed creature, on a filthie swyne,
His belly was vpblowneupblowne with luxury;
And eke with fatnesse swollen were his eyne,
And like a Crane his necke was long and fyne,
With which he swallowd vpup excessiueexcessive feast,
For want whereof poore people oft did pyne,
And all the way, most like a brutish beast,
He spued vpup his gorge, that all did him deteast.
[22]
In greene vine leauesleaves he was right fitly clad;
For other clothes he could not weare for heat,
And on his head an yuieyvie girland had,
From vnderunder which fast trickled downe the sweat:
Still as he rode, he somewhat still did eat,
And in his hand did beare a bouzing can,
Of which he supt so oft, that on his seat
His dronken corſecorse courſecourse he scarse vpholdenupholden can,
In shape and life more like a monster, 22.9. then: thanthenthan a man.
[23]
VnfitUnfit he was for any worldlywordly thing,
And eke vnhableunhable once to stirre or go,
Not meet to be of counsell to a king,
Whose mind in meat and drinke was drowned so,
That from his frend he seeldome knew his fo:
Full of diseases was his carcas blew,
And a dry dropsie through his flesh did flow,
Which by misdiet daily greater grew:
Such one was Gluttony, the second of that crew.
[24]
And next to him rode lustfull Lechery,
VponUpon a bearded Gote, whose rugged heare,
And whally eies (the signe of gelosy,)gelosy),
Was like the person selfe, whom he did beare:
Who rough, and blacke, and filthy did appeare,
VnseemelyUnseemely man to please faire Ladies eye;
Yet he of Ladies oft was louedloved deare,
When fairer faces were bid standen by:
O who does know the bent of womens fantasy?
[25]
In a greene gowne he clothed was full faire,
Which vnderneathunderneath did hide his filthinesse,
And in his hand a burning hart he bare,
Full of vaine follies, and new fanglenesse;
For he was false, and fraught with ficklenesse,
And learned had to louelove with secret lookes,
And well could daunce, and sing with ruefulnesse,
And fortunes tell, and read in louingloving bookes,
And thousand other waies, to bait his fleshly hookes.
[26]
Inconstant man, that louedloved all he saw,
And lusted after all, that he did louelove,
Ne would his looser life be tide to law,
But ioydjoyd weake wemens hearts to tempt, and proueprove
If from their loyall louesloves he might them mouemove;
Which lewdnes fild him with reprochfull pain
Of that foule euillevill, which all men reprouereprove,
That rotts the marrow, and consumes the braine:
Such one was Lechery, the third of all this traine.
[27]
And greedy AuariceAvarice by him did ride,
VpponUppon a Camell loaden all with gold;
Two iron cof⁀ferscoffers cof⁀fetscoffets hong on either side,
With precious metall full, as they might hold,
And in his lap an heap of coine he told;
For of his wicked pelfpelpepelfe his God he made,
And vntounto hell him selfe for money sold;
Accursed vsuryusury was all his trade,
And right and wrong ylike in equall ballaunce waide.
[28]
His life was nigh vntounto deaths dore yplaste,
And thred-bare cote, and cobled shoes hee ware,
Ne scarse good morsell all his life did taste,
But both from backe and belly still did spare,
To fill his bags, and richesse to compare;
Yet childe ne kinsman liuingliving had he none
To leaueleave them to; but thorough daily care
To get, and nightly feare to lose his owne,
He led a wretched life vntounto him selfe vnknowneunknowne.
[29]
Most wretched wight, whom nothing might suffise,
Whose greedy lust did lacke in greatest store,
Whose need had end, but no end couetisecovetise,
Whose welth was want, whose plẽtyplenty made him pore,
Who had enough, yett wished euerever more,
A vile disease, and eke in foote and hand
A grieuousgrievous gout tormented him full sore,
That well he could not touch, nor goe, nor stand:
Such one was AuariceAvarice, the fourthforth of this faire band.
[30]
And next to him malicious EnuyEnvy rode,
VponUpon a rauenousravenous wolfe, and still did chaw
Betweene his cankred teeth a venemous tode,
That all the poison ran about his chaw;
But inwardly he chawed his owne maw
At neibors welth, that made him euerever sad;
For death it was, when any good he saw,
And wept, that cause of weeping none he had,
But when he heard of harme, he wexed wondrous glad.
[31]
All in a kirtle of discolourd say
He clothed was, ypaynted full of eies;
And in his bosome secretly there lay
An hatefull Snake, the which his taile vptyesuptyes
In many folds, and mortall sting implyes.
Still as he rode, he gnasht his teeth, to see
Those heapes of gold with griple CouetyseCovetyse,
And grudged at the greatgteat felicitee
Of proudOfproud Lucifera, and his owne companee.
[32]
He hated all good workes and vertuous deeds,
And him no lesse, that any like did vseuse,
And who with gratious bread the hungry feeds,
His almes for want of faith he doth accuse;
So eueryevery good to bad he doth abuse:
And eke the verse of famous Poets witt
He does backebite, and spightfull poison spues
From leprous mouth on all, that euerever writt:
Such one vile EnuyEnvy was, that fiftefifte firſtfirst in row did sitt.
[33]
And him beside rides fierce reuengingrevenging Wrath,
VponUpon a Lion, loth for to be led;
And in his hand a burning brond he hath,
The which he brandisheth about his hed;
His eies did hurle forth sparcles fiery red,
And stared sterne on all, that him beheld,
As ashes pale of hew and seeming ded;
And on his dagger still his hand he held,
TrẽblingTrembling through hasty rage, when choler in him sweld.
[34]
His ruffin raiment all was staind with blood,
Which he had spilt; and all to rags yrent,
Through vnaduizedunadvized rashnes woxen wood;
For of his hands he had no gouernementgovernement,
Ne car'd for blood in his auengementavengement:
But when the furious fitt was ouerpastoverpast,
His cruell facts he often would repent;
Yet wilfull man he neuernever would forecast,
How many mischieuesmischieves should ensue his heedlesse hast.
[35]
Full many mischiefes follow cruell Wrath;
Abhorred bloodshed, and tumultuous strife,
VnmanlyUnmanly murder, and vnthriftyunthrifty scath,
Bitter despight, with rancours rusty knife,
And fretting griefe the enemy of life;
All these, and many euilsevils moe haunt ire,
The swelling Splene, and Frenzy raging rife,
The shaking Palsey, and Saint Fraunces fire:
Such one was Wrath, the last of this vngodlyungodly tire.
[36]
And after all vponupon the wagon beame
Rode Sathan, with a smarting whip in hand,
With which he forward lasht the laesy teme,
So oft as Slowth still in the mire did stand.
Huge routs of people did about them band,
Showting for ioyjoy, and still before their way
A foggy mist had coueredcovered all the land;
And vnderneathunderneath their feet, all scattered lay
Dead sculls &and bones of men, whose life had gone astray.
[37]
So forth they marchen in this goodly sort,
To take the solace of the open aire,
And in fresh flowring fjeldsfields themseluesthemselves to sport;
Emongst the rest rode that false Lady faire,
The foule Duessa, next vntounto the chaire
Of proudOfproud Lucifer' Lucifera , as one of the traine:
But that good knight would not so nigh repaire,
Him selfe estraunging from their ioyauncejoyaunce vaine,
Whose fellowship seemd far vnfittunfitt for warlike swaine.
[38]
So hauinghaving solaced themseluesthemselves a space,
With pleasaunce of the breathing fjeldsfields yfed,
They backe retourned to the princely Place;
Whereas an errant knight in armes ycled,
And heathnish shield, wherein with letters red
Was writt Sans ioyjoy, they new arriuedarrived find:
Enflam'd with fury and fiers hardy hed,
He seemd in hart to harbour thoughts vnkindunkind,
And nourish bloody vengeaunce in his bitter mind.
[39]
Who when the shamed shield of slaine Sans foy
He spide with that same FaeryFary champions page,
Bewraying him, that did of late destroy
His eldest brother, burning all with rage
He to him lept, and that same enuiousenvious gage
Of victors glory from him snacht away:
But th'Elfin knight, which ought that warlike wage,
Disdaind to loose the meed he wonne in fray,
And him rencountring fierce, reskewd the noble pray.
[40]
Therewith they gan to hurtlen greedily,
Redoubted battaile ready to darrayne,
And clash their shields, and shake their swerds on hy,
That with their sturre they troubled all the traine;
Till that great Queene vponupon eternall paine
Of high displeasure, that ensewen might,
Commaunded them their fury to refraine,
And if that either to that shield had right,
In equall lists they should the morrow next it fight.
[41]
Ah dearest Dame, qd.quoth then the Paynim bold,
Pardon the error of enraged wight,
Whome great griefe made forgett the raines to hold
Of reasons rule, to see this recreaunt knight,
No knight, but treachour full of false despight
And shameful treason, who through guile hath slayn
The prowest knight, that euerever field did fight,
EuenEven stout Sans foy (O who can then refrayn?)
Whose shield he beares renuerst, the more to heap disdayn.
[42]
And to augment the glorie of his guile,
His dearest louelove the faire Fidessa loe
Is there possessed of the traytour vile,
Who reapes the haruestharvest sowen by his foe,
Sowen in bloodie field, and bought with woe:
That brothers hand shall dearely well requight
So be, O Queene, you equall fauourfavour showe.
Him litle answerd th'angry Elfin knight;
He neuernever meant with words, but swords to plead his right.right
[43]
But threw his gauntlet as a sacred pledg,
His cause in combat the next day to try:
So been they parted both, with harts on edg,
To be aueng'daveng'd each on his enimy.
That night they pas in ioyjoy and iollityjollity,
Feasting and courting both in bowre and hall;
For Steward was excessiueexcessive Gluttony,
That of his plenty poured forth to all;
Which doen, the Chamberlain Slowth did to rest them call.
[44]
Now whenas darkesome night had all displayd
Her coleblacke curtein ouerover brightest skye,
The warlike youthes on dayntie couches layd,
Did chace away sweet sleepe from sluggish eye,
To muse on meanes of hoped victory.
But whenas Morpheus had with leaden mace,
Arrested all that courtly company,
VproseUprose Duessa from her resting place,
And to the Paynims lodging comes with silent pace.
[45]
Whom broad awake she findes, in troublous fitt,
Forecasting, how his foe he might annoy,
And him amouesamoves with speaches seeming fitt:
Ah deare SansioySansjoy, next dearest to Sansfoy,
Cause of my new griefe, cause of my newof new ioyjoy,
IoyousJoyous, to see his ymage in mine eye,
And greeudgreevd, to thinke how foe did him destroy,
That was the flowre of grace and cheualryechevalrye;
Lo his Fidessa to thy secret faith I flye.
[46]
With gentle wordes he can her fayrely greet,
And bad say on the secrete of her hart.
Then sighing soft, I learne that litle sweet
Oft tempred is (quoth she) with muchell smart:
For since my brest was launcht with louelylovely dart
Of deare Sansfoy Sanfoy , I neuernever ioyedjoyed howre,
But in eternall woes my weaker hart
HaueHave wasted, louingloving him with all my powre,
And for his sake hauehave felt full many an heauieheavie stowre.
[47]
At last when perils all I weened past,
And hop'd to reape the crop of all my care,
Into new woes vnweetingunweeting I was cast,
By this false faytor, who vnworthieunworthie ware
His worthie shield, whom he with guilefull snare
Entrapped slew, and brought to shamefull grauegrave.
Me silly maid away with him he bare,
And euerever since hath kept in darksom cauecave,
For that I would not yeeld, that to Sansfoy I gauegave.
[48]
ButBnt since faire Sunne hath sperst that lowring clowd,
And to my loathed life now shewes some light,
VnderUnder your beames I will me safely shrowd,
From dreaded storme of his disdainfull spight:
To you th'inheritance belonges by right
Of brothers prayse, to you eke longes his louelove.
Let not his louelove, let not his restlesse spright,
Be vnreueng'dunreveng'd, that calles to you aboueabove
From wandring Stygian shores, where it doth endlesse move.
[49]
Thereto said he, faire Dame be nought dismaid
For sorrowes past; their griefe is with them gone:
Ne yet of present perill be affraid:
For needlesse feare did neuernever vantage none,
And helplesse hap it booteth not to mone.
Dead is Sansfoy, his vitall paines are past,
Though greeuedgreeved ghost for vengeance deep do grone:grone
He liueslives, that shall him pay his dewties last,
And guiltie Elfin blood shall sacrifice in hast.
[50]
O But I feare the fickle freakes (quoth shee)
Of fortune false, and oddes of armes in field.
Why dame (quoth he) what oddes can euerever bee,
Where both doe fight alike, to win or yield?
Yea but (quoth she) he beares a charmed shield,
And eke enchaunted armes, that none can perce,
Ne none can wound the man, that does them wield.
Charmd or enchaunted (answerd he then ferce)
I no whitt reck, ne you the like need to reherce.
[51]
But faire Fidessa, sithens fortunes guile,
Or enimies powre hath now captiuedcaptived you,
Returne from whence ye came, and rest a while
Till morrow next, that I the Elfe subdew,
And with Sansfoyes dead dowry you endew.
Ay me, that is a double death (she said)
With proud foes sight my sorrow to renew:
Where euerever yet I be, my secrete aide
Shall follow you. So passing forth she him obaid.
1.9. proue.prove. ] 1596, 1609; proueprove 1590
2.3. falſefalse ] 1590 state 2; fale 1590 state 1, ; falſefalse 1596, 1609
3.5. cace] this edn.; care 1590, ; caſecase 1590FE, 1596, 1609
7.5. ſumpteoussumpteous ] 1590; ſumptuoussumptuous 1596, 1609
11.3. worth] 1590, 1609; wroth 1596
12.2. selfe a] 1590, 1609; selfe 1596
12.7. Realme] 1590; Realmes 1596, 1609
13.1. ElfinElfin ] 1590, 1609; ElfingElfing 1596
16.9. glitterand] 1590; glitter and 1596, 1609
18.2. CounſelloursCounsellours ] 1590 state 2; CoſunelloursCosunellours The firſt Booke of 1590 state 1, ; CounſelloursCounsellours 1596, 1609
22.8. corſecorse ] 1596, 1609, 1590FE; courſecourse 1590
23.1. worldly] 1596, 1609; wordly 1590
27.3. cof⁀ferscoffers ] 1596, 1609; cof⁀fetscoffets 1590
27.6. pelf] 1590FE; pelpe 1590, ; pelfe 1596, 1609
29.9. fourth] 1596, 1609; forth 1590
31.8. great] 1696, 1609; gteat 1590
31.9. Of proud] this edn.; Ofproud 1590
32.9. fiftefifte ] 1590FE; firſtfirst 1590, 1596, 1609
37.6. Of proud] this edn.; Ofproud 1590
37.6. Lucifer' ] 1590; Lucifera 1596, 1609
39.2. Faery] 1596, 1609; Fary 1590
42.9. right.] this edn.; right 1590
45.5. of my new] 1590FE, 1609; of new 1590, 1596
46.6. Sansfoy] 1596, 1609; Sanfoy 1590
48.1. But] this edn.; Bnt 1590
49.7. grone:] 1596, 1609; grone 1590
Editorial policy for this edition is to silently close up compounds, there being no warrant to assume that details like spacing and orthography reflect authorial intention. We make an exception here because it is just possible that the 1590 reading accurately renders copy that gave an outdated form deliberately as part of the effort to lend an archaic feel to the language. "Ther to" and "there to" are at least as frequent as "thereto" in Medieval texts; the close-up form appears to have become standard during the sixteenth century.
Building display . . .
Re-selecting textual changes . . .

Introduction

The toggles above every page allow you to determine both the degree and the kind of editorial intervention present in the text as you read it. They control, as well, the display of secondary materials—collational notes, glosses, and links to commentary.

Textual Changes

The vagaries of early modern printing often required that lines or words be broken. Toggling Modern Lineation on will reunite divided words and set errant words in their lines.

Off: That a large share it hewd out of the rest, (blest. And glauncing downe his shield, from blame him fairely (FQ I.ii.18.8-9) On: That a large share it hewd out of the rest, And glauncing downe his shield, from blame him fairely blest.

Toggling Expansions on will undo certain early modern abbreviations.

Off: Sweet slõbring deaw, the which to sleep them biddes: (FQ I.i.36.4)

Toggling Modern Characters on will convert u, v, i, y, and vv to v, u, j, i, and w. (N.B. the editors have silently replaced ſ with s, expanded most ligatures, and adjusted spacing according contemporary norms.)

Off: And all the world in their subiection held, Till that infernall feend with foule vprore (FQ I.i.5.6-7) On: And all the world in their subjection held, Till that infernall feend with foule uprore

Toggling Lexical Modernizations on will conform certain words to contemporary orthographic standards.

Off: But wander too and fro in waies vnknowne (FQ I.i.10.5) On: But wander to and fro in waies vnknowne.

Toggling Emendations on will correct obvious errors in the edition on which we base our text and modernize its most unfamiliar features.

Most lothsom, filthie, foule, and full of vile disdaine (FQ I.i.14.9) 14.9. Most lothsom] this edn.; Mostlothsom 1590

(The text of 1590 reads Mostlothsom, while the editors’ emendation reads Most lothsom.)

Apparatus

Toggling Collation Notes on will highlight words that differ among printings.

And shall thee well rewarde to shew the place, (FQ I.i.31.5) 5. thee] 1590; you 15961609

(The text of 1590 reads thee, while the texts of 1596 and 1609 read you.)

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Toggling Line Numbers on will show the number of the line within each stanza.

Toggling Stanza Numbers on will show the number of the stanza within each canto.

Toggling Glosses on will show the definitions of unfamiliar words or phrases.

To my long approoved and singular good frende, Master G.H. (Letters I.1) 1. long aprooved: tried and true, found trustworthy over a long period