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Cant XI. The knight with that old Dragon fights two dayes incessantly: The third him ouerthrowesoverthrowes, and gayns most glorious victory. [1] High time now gan it wex for VnaUna fayre, To thinke of those her captiuecaptive Parents deare, And their for wasted kingdom to repayre: Whereto whenas they now approched neare, With hartie wordes her knight she gan to cheare, And in her modest maner thus bespake; Deare knight, as deare, as euerever knight was deare, That all these sorrowes suffer for my sake, High heuen behold the tedious toyle, ye for me take. [2]Now are we come vntounto my natiuenative soyle, And to the place, where all our perilles dwell; Here hauntes that feend, and does his dayly spoyle, Therefore henceforth bee atit your keeping well, And euerever ready for your foeman fell. The sparke of noble corage now awake, And striuestrive your excellent selfe to excell; That shall ye euermoreevermore renowmed make, AboueAbove all knights on earth, that batteill vndertakeundertake. [(1596) 3]And pointing forth, lo yonder is (ſaidsaid ſ⁀heshe) The braſenbrasen towre in which my parents deare For dread of that huge feend empriſonedemprisoned be Whom I from far, ſeesee on the walles appeare Whoſe ſ⁀ightsight my feeble ſoulesoule doth greatly cheare: And on the top of all I do eſpyeespye The watchman wayting tydings glad to heare, That on my parents might I happily VntoUnto you bring, to eaſeease you of your miſerymisery. [stanza missing] And pointing forth, lo, yonder is (ſaid ſhe) The braſen towre, in which my parents deare For dread of that huge fiend empriſoned be, Whom I from far, ſee on the walls appeare, Whoſe ſight my feeble ſoule doth greatly cheare: And on the top of all, I do eſpy The watchman waiting, tydings glad to heare, That (on my parents) might I happily Vnto you bring, to eaſe you of your miſery. [4]With that they heard a roaring hideous sownd, That all the ayre with terror filled wyde, And seemd vneathuneath to shake the stedfast ground. Eftsoones that dreadfull Dragon they espyde, Where ſtretchtstretcht ſtretchstretch he lay vponupon the sunny side, Of a great hill, himselfe like a great hill. But all so soone, as he from far descryde Those glistring armes, that heuen with light did fill, He rousd himselfe full blyth, and hastned them vntilluntill. [5]Then badd the knight hisbadd the knight thisbad the knight thisbade the knight this Lady yede aloof, And to an hill her selfe withdraw asyde, From whence she might behold that battailles proof And eke be safe from daunger far descryde: She him obayd, and turnd a litle wyde.wyde,wide. Now O thou sacred Muse, most learned Dame, Fayre ympe of Phœbus, and his aged bryde, The Nourse of time, and euerlastingeverlasting fame, That warlike handes ennoblest with immortall name; [6]O gently come into my feeble brest, Come gently, but not with that mightie rage, Wherewith the martiall troupes thou doest infest, And hartes of great Heroës doest enrage, That nought their kindled corage may aswage, Soone as thy dreadfull trompe begins to sownd; The God of warre with his fiers equipage Thou doest awake, sleepe neuernever he so sownd, And ſcaredscared feared nations doest with horror sterne astownd. [7]Fayre Goddesse lay that furious fitt asyde, Till I of warres and bloody Mars doe sing, And Bryton fieldes with Sarazin blood bedyde, Twixt that great Faery Queene and Paynim king, That with their horror heuen and earth did ring, A worke of labour long, and endlesse prayse: But now a while lett downe that haughtie string, And to my tunes thy second tenor rayse, That I this man of God his godly armes may blaze. [8]By this the dreadfull Beast drew nigh to hand, Halfe flying, and halfe footing in his haste, That with his largenesse measured much land, And made wide shadow vnderunder his huge waste; As mountaine doth the valley ouercasteovercaste. Approching nigh, he reared high afore His body monstrous, horrible, and vaste vaſte,vaste, waſt,wast, vaſt,vast, Which to increase his wondrous greatnes more, Was swoln with wrath, &and poyson, &and with bloody gore. [9]And over allouer, allover, all with brasen scales was armd, Like plated cote of steele, so couched neare, That nought mote perce, ne might his corse bee harmd With dint of swerd, nor push of pointed ſpeare,speare, ſpeare;speare; Which as an Eagle, seeing pray appeare, His aery plumes doth rouze, full rudely dight, So shaked he, that horror was to heare, For as the clashing of an Armor bright, Such noyse his rouzed scales did send vntounto the knight. [10]His flaggy winges when forth he did display, Were like two sayles, in which the hollow wynd Is gathered full, and worketh speedy way: And eke the pennes, that did his pineons bynd, Were like mayne-yardes, with flying canuascanvas lynd,kynd,lin'd With which whenas him list the ayre to beat, And there by force vnwontedunwonted passage fynd, The clowdes before him fledd for terror great, And all the heuenshevens stood still amazed with his threat. [11]His huge long tayle wownd vpup in hundred foldes, Does ouerspredoverspred his long bras-scaly back, Whose wreathed boughtes when euerever he vnfoldesunfoldes, And thick entangled knots adown does ſ⁀lack;slack; ſ⁀lack,slack, ſ⁀lack.slack. Bespotted asall with shieldes of red and blacke, It sweepeth all the land behind him farre, And of three furlongs does but litle lacke; And at the point two stinges in fixed arre, Both deadly sharp, that sharpest steele exceeden farr. [12]But stinges and sharpest steele did far exceed The sharpnesse of his cruel rending clawes; Dead was it sure, as sure as death in deed, What euerever thing does touch his rauenousravenous pawes, Or what within his reach he euerever drawes. But his most hideous head my tongue to tell, Does tremble: for his deepe deuouringdevouring iawesjawes Wyde gaped, like the griesly mouth of hell, Through which into his darke abysse all rauinravin fell. [13]And that more wondrous was, in either iawjaw Three ranckes ofyronof yron teeth enraunged were, In which yett trickling blood and gobbets raw Of late deuoureddevoured bodies did appeare, That sight thereof bredd cold congealed feare: Which to increase, and all atonce to kill, A cloud of smoothering smoke and sulphure seare Out of his stinking gorge forth steemed still, That all the ayre about with smoke and stench did fill. [14]His blazing eyes, like two bright shining shieldes, Did burne with wrath, and sparkled liuingliving fyre; As two broad Beacons, sett in open fieldes, Send forth their flames far offof to eueryevery shyre, And warning giuegive, that enimies conspyre, With fire and sword the region to inuadeinvade; So flam'd his eyne with rage and rancorous yre: But far within, as in a hollow glade, Those glaring lampes were sett, that made a dreadfull shade. [15]So dreadfully he towardes him did pas, Forelifting vpup a loftaloft his speckled brest, And often bounding on the brused gras, As for great ioyauncejoyaunce of his new come guest. Eftsoones he gan aduaunceadvaunce his haughty crest, As chauffed Bore his bristles doth vpreareupreare, And shoke his scales to battaile ready drest; That made the Redcrosse knight nigh quake for feare, As bidding bold defyaunce to his foeman neare. [16]The knight gan fayrely couch his steady speare, And fiersely ran at him with rigorous might: The pointed steele arriuingarriving rudely theare, His harder hyde would nether perce, nor bight, But glauncing by foorth passed forward right; Yet sore amouedamoved with so puissaunt push, The wrathfull beast about him turned light, And him so rudely passing by, did brush With his long tayle, that horse and man to ground did rush. [17]Both horse and man vpup lightly rose againe, And fresh encounter towardes him addrest: But th'ydle stroke yet backe recoyld in vaine, And found no place his deadly point to rest. Exceeding rage enflam'd the furious beast, To be auengedavenged of so great despight; For neuernever felt his imperceable brest So wondrous force, from hand of liuingliving wight; Yet had he prou'dprov'd the powre of many a puissant knight. [18]Then with his wauingwaving wings displayed wyde, Himselfe vpup high he lifted from the ground, And with strong flight did forcibly diuydedivyde The yielding ayre, which nigh too feeble found Her flitting parts, and element vnſoundunſoundvnsoundunsound vnfoundunfound, To beare so great a weight: he cutting way With his broad sayles, about him soared round: At last low stouping with vnweldyunweldy sway, Snatcht vpup both horse &and man, to beare thẽthem quite away. [19]Long he them bore aboueabove the subiectsubject plaine, So far as Ewghen bow a shaft may send, Till struggling strong did him at last constraine, To let them downe before his flightes end: As hagard hauke presuming to contend With hardy fowle, aboueabove his hable might, His wearie pounces all in vaine doth spend, To trusse the pray too heauyheavy for his flight; Which comming down to ground, does free it selfe by fight. [20]He so disseized of his gryping grosse, The knight his thrillant speare againe assayd In his bras-plated body to embosse, And three mens strength vntounto the stroake he layd; Wherewith the stiffe beame quaked, as affrayd, And glauncing from his scaly necke, did glyde Close vnderunder his left wing, then broad displayd. The percing steele there wrought a wound full wyde, That with the vncouthuncouth smart the Monster lowdly cryde. [21]He cryde, as raging seas are wont to rore, When wintry storme his wrathful wreck does threat, The rolling billowes beat the ragged shore, As they the earth would shoulder from her seat, And greedy gulfe does gape, as he would eat His neighbour element in his reuengerevenge: Then gin the blustring brethren boldly threat, To mouemove the world from off his stedfast henge, And boystrous battaile make, each other to auengeavenge. [22]The steely head stuck fast still in his flesh, Till with his cruell clawes he snatcht the wood, And quite a sunderasunder broke. Forth flowed fresh A gushing riuerriver of blacke gory blood, That drowned all the land, whereon he stood; The streame thereof would driuedrive a water-mill. Trebly augmentedangmented was his furious mood With bitter sence of his deepe rooted ill, That flames of fire he threw forth frõfrom his large nosethril. [23]His hideous tayle then hurled he about, And therewith all enwrapt the nimble thyes Of his froth-fomy steed, whose courage stout StriuingStriving to loose the knott, that fast him tyes, Himselfe in streighter bandes too rash implyes, That to the ground he is perforce constraynd To throw his ryder: who can quickly ryse From offof the earth, with durty blood distaynd, For that reprochfull fall right fowly he disdaynd. [24]And fercely tooke his trenchand blade in hand, With which he stroke so furious and so fell, That nothing seemd the puissaunce could withstand: VponUpon his crest the hardned yron fell, But his more hardned crest was armd so well, That deeper dint therein it would not make; Yet so extremely did the buffe him quell, That from thenceforth he shund the like to take, But when he saw them come, he did them still forsake. [25]The knight was wrothwrath to see his stroke beguyld, And smot againe with more outrageous might; But backe againe the sparcling steele recoyld, And left not any marke, where it did light,light; As if in Adamant rocke it had beene pight;pight,pight. The beast impatient of his smarting wound, And of so fierce and forcible despight, Thought with his winges to stye aboueabove the ground; But his late wounded wing vnseruiceableunserviceable found. [26]Then full of griefe and anguish vehement, He lowdly brayd, that like was neuernever heard, And from his wide deuouringdevouring ouenoven sent A flake of fire, that flashing in his beard, Him all amazd, and almost made afeard: The scorching flame sore swinged all his face, And through his armour all his body seard, That he could not endure so cruell cace, But thought his armes to leaueleave, and helmet to vnlaceunlace. [27]Not that great Champion of the antique world, Whom famous Poetes verse so much doth vauntdaunt, And hath for tweluetwelve huge labours high extold, So many furies and sharpe fits did haunt, When him the poysoned garment did enchaunt With Centaures blood, and bloody verses charmd, As did this knight tweluetwelve thousand dolours daunt, Whom fyrie steele now burnt, that erst him armd, That erst him goodly armd, now most of all him harmd. [28]Faynt, wearie, sore, emboyled, grieuedgrieved, brent With heat, toyle, wounds, armes, smart, &and inward fire That neuernever man such mischiefes did torment; Death better were, death did he oft desire, But death will neuernever come, when needes require. Whom so dismayd when that his foe beheld, He cast to suffer him no more respire, But gan his sturdy sterne about to weld, And him so strongly stroke, that to the ground him feld. [29]It fortuned (as fayre it then befell,) Behynd his backe vnweetingunweeting, where he stood, Of auncient time there was a springing well, From which fast trickled forth a siluersilver flood, Full of great vertues, and for med'cine good. Whylome, before that cursed Dragon got That happy land, and all with innocent blood Defyld those sacred waueswaves, it rightly hot The well of life, ne yet his vertues had forgot. [30]For vntounto life the dead it could restore, And guilt of sinfull crimes cleane wash away, Those that with sicknesse were infected sore, It could recure, and aged long decay Renew, as oneit were borne that very day. Both Silo this, and IordanJordan did excell, And th'English Bath, and eke the german Spau, Ne can Cephise, nor Hebrus match this well: Into the same the knight back ouerthrowenoverthrowen, fell. [31]Now gan the golden Phœbus for to steepe His fierie face in billowes of the west, And his faint steedes watred in Ocean deepe, Whiles from their iournalljournall labours they did rest, When that infernall Monster, hauinghaving kest His wearie foe into that liuingliving well, Can high aduaunceadvaunce his broad discoloured brest, AboueAbove his wonted pitch, with countenance fell, And clapt his yron wings, as victor he did dwell. [32]Which when his pensiuepensive Lady saw from farre, Great woe and sorrow did her soule assay, As weening that the sad end of the warre, And gan to highest God entirely pray, That feared chaunce from her to turne away; With folded hands and knees full lowly bent All night shee watcht, ne once adowne would lay Her dainty limbs in her sad dreriment, But praying still did wake, and waking did lament. [33]The morrow next gan earely to appeare, That Titan rose to runne his daily racetacerace; But earely ere the morrow next gan reare Out of the sea faire Titans deawy face, VpUp rose the gentle virgin from her place, And looked all about, if she might spy Her louedloved knight to mouemove his manly pace: For she had great doubt of his safety, Since late she saw him fall before his enimy. [34]At last she saw, where he vpstartedupstarted brauebrave Out of the well, wherein he drenched lay; As Eagle fresh out of the Ocean wauewave, Where he hath lefte his plumes all hory gray, And deckt himselfe with fethers youthly gay, Like Eyas hauke vpup mounts vntounto the skies, His newly budded pineons to assay, And merueilesmerveiles at him selfe, stil as he flies: So newvewnew this new-borne knight to battell new did rise. [35]Whom when the damned feend so fresh did ſpy,spy, ſpy.spy. No wonder, if he wondred at the sight, And doubted, whether his late enimy It were, or other new supplied knight. He, now to proueprove his late renewed might, High brandishing his bright deaw-burning blade, VponUpon his crested scalp so sore did smite, That to the scull a yawning wound it made: The deadly dint his dulled sences all dismaid. [36]I wote not, whether the reuengingrevenging steele Were hardned with that holy water dew, Wherein he fell, or sharper edge did feele, Or his baptized hands now greater grew; Or other secret vertue did ensew; Els neuernever could the force of fleshly arme, Ne molten mettall in his blood embrew: For till that stownd could neuernever wight him harme, By subtilty, nor slight, nor might, nor mighty charme. [37]The cruell wound enraged him so sore, That loud he yelded for exceeding paine; As hundred ramping Lions seemd to rore, Whom rauenousravenous hunger did thereto constraine: Then gan he tosse aloft his stretched traine, And there with scourge the buxome aire so sore, That to his force to yielden it was faine; Ne ought his sturdy strokes might stand afore, That high trees ouerthrewoverthrew, and rocks in peeces tore. [38]The same aduauncingadvauncing high aboueabove his head, With sharpe intended sting so rude him smott, That to the earth him drouedrove, as stricken dead, Ne liuingliving wight would hauehave him life behott: The mortall sting his angry needle shott Quite through his shield, and in his shoulder seasd, VVhereWhere fast it stucke, ne would thereout be gott: The griefe thereof him wondrous sore diseasd, Ne might his rancling paine with patience be appeasd. [39]But yet more mindfull of his honour deare, 39.2. Then: ThanThenThan of the grieuousgrievous smart, which him did wring, From loathed soile he can him lightly reare, And strouestrove to loose the far infixed ſtingsting ſtringstring : Which when in vaine he tryde with struggeling, Inflam'd with wrath, his raging blade he hefte, And strooke so strongly, that the knotty ſtringstring ſtingsting Of his huge taile he quite a sonderasonder clefte, FiueFive iointsjoints thereof he hewd, &and but the stump him lefte. [40]Hart cannot thinke, what outrage, and what cries, VVithWith fowle enfouldred smoake and flashing fire, The hell-bred beast threw forth vntounto the skies, That all was coueredcovered with darknesse dire: Then fraught with rancour, and engorged yre, He cast at once him to auengeavenge for all, And gathering vpup himselfe out of the mire, With his vneuenuneven wings did fiercely fall, VponUpon his sunne-bright shield, and grypt it fast withall. [41]Much was the man encombred with his hold, In feare to lose his weapon in his paw, Ne wist yett, how his talaunts to vnfoldunfold; For harder was from Cerberus greedy iawjaw To plucke a bone, 41.5. then: thanthenthan from his cruell claw To reauereave by strength, the griped gage away: Thrise he assayd it from his foote to draw, And thrise in vaine to draw it did assay, It booted nought to thinke, to robbe him of his pray. [42]Tho when he saw no power might preuaileprevaile, His trusty sword he cald to his last aid, Wherewith he fiersly did his foe assaile, And double blowes about him stoutly laid, That glauncing fire out of the yron plaid; As sparckles from the Anduile vseuse to fly, When heauyheavy hammers on the wedg are swaid; Therewith at last he forst him to vntyunty One of his grasping feete, him to defend therebythreby. [43]The other foote, fast fixed on his shield Whenas no strength, nor stroks mote him constraine To loose, ne yet the warlike pledg to yield, He smott thereat with all his might and maine, That nought so wõdrouswondrous puissaunce might sustaine; VponUpon the iointjoint the lucky steele did light, And made such way, that hewd it quite in twaine; The paw yett missed not his minisht might, But hong still on the shield, as it at first was pight. [44]For griefe thereof, and diuelishdivelish despight, From his infernall fournace forth he threw Huge flames, that dimmed all the heuenshevens light, Enrold in duskish smoke and brimstone blew; As burning Aetna from his boyling stew Doth belch out flames, and rockes in peeces broke, And ragged ribs of mountaines molten new, Enwrapt in coleblacke clowds and filthy smoke, That al the land with stẽchstench, &and heuenheven with horror choke. [45]The heate whereof, and harmefull pestilence So sore him noyd, that forst him to retire A litle backeward for his best defence, To sauesave his body from the scorching fire, Which he from hellish entrailes did expire. It chaunst (eternall God that chaunce did guide) As he recoiled backeward, in the mire His nigh foreweried feeble feet did slide, And downe he fell, with dread of shame sore terrifide. [46]There grew a goodly tree him faire beside, Loaden with fruit and apples rosy redd, As they in pure vermilion had beene dide, Whereof great vertues ouerover all were redd: For happy life to all, which thereon fedd, And life eke euerlastingeverlasting did befall: Great God it planted in that blessed stedd With his Almighty hand, and did it call The tree of life, the crime of our first fathers fall. [47]In all the world like was not to be fownd, SaueSave in that soile, where all good things did grow, And freely sprong out of the fruitfull grownd, As incorrupted Nature did them sow, Till that dredd Dragon all did ouerthowoverthow. Another like faire tree eke grew thereby, Whereof who so did eat, eftsoones did know Both good and ill: O mournfull memory: That tree through one mãsmans fault hath doen vsus all to dy. [48]From that first tree forth flowd, as from a well, A trickling streame of Balme, most souerainesoveraine And dainty deare, which on the ground still fell, And ouerflowedoverflowed all the fertile plaine, As it had deawed bene with timely raine: Life and long health that gracious ointment gauegave, And deadly wounds could heale, and reare againe The sencelesse corse appointed for the grauegrave. IntoInio that same he fell: which did from death him sauesave. [49]For nigh thereto the euerever damned Beast Durst not approch, for he was deadly made, And al that life preseruedpreserved, did detest: Yet he it oft aduentur'd to inuadeinvade. By this the drouping day-light gan to fade, And yieldyiedyeeld his rowme to sad succeeding night, Who with her sable mantle gan to shade The face of earth, and wayes of liuingliving wight, And high her burning torch set vpup in heauenheaven bright. [50]When gentle VnaUna saw the second fall Of her deare knight, who weary of long fight, And faint through losse of blood, moou'dmoov'd not at all, But lay as in a dreame of deepe delight, Besmeard with pretious Balme, whose vertuous might Did heale his woundes, and scorching heat alay, Againe she stricken was with sore affright, And for his safetie gan deuoutlydevoutly pray; And watch the noyous night, and wait for ioyousjoyous day. [51]The ioyousjoyous day gan early to appeare, And fayre Aurora from theher deawy bed Of aged Tithone gan her selfe to reare, With rosy cheekes, for shame as blushing red; Her golden locks for hast were loosely shed About her eares, when VnaUna her did marke Clymbe to her charet, all with flowers spred; From heuen high to chace the chearelesse darke, With mery note her lowd salutes the mounting larke. [52]Then freshly vpup arose the doughty knight, All healed of his hurts and woundes wide, And did himselfe to battaile ready dight; Whose early foe awaiting him beside To hauehave deuourddevourd, so soone as day he spyde, When now he saw himselfe so freshly reare, As if late fight had nought him damnifyde, He woxe dismaid, and gan his fate to feare; Nathlesse with wonted rage he him aduauncedadvaunced neare. [53]And in his first encounter, gaping wyde, He thought attonce him to hauehave swallowd quight, And rusht vponupon him with outragious pryde; Who him rencountring fierce, as hauke in flight, Perforce rebutted backe. The weapon bright Taking aduantageadvantage of his open iawjaw, Ran through his mouth with so importune might, That deepe emperst his darksom hollow maw, And back retyrd, his life blood forth with all did draw. [54]So downe he fell, and forth his life did breath, That vanisht into smoke and cloudes swift; So downe he fell, that th'earththe'arthth'earth him vnderneathunderneath Did grone, as feeble so great load to lift; So downe he fell, as an huge rocky clift, Whose false foundacion waueswaves hauehave washt away, With dreadfull poyse is from the mayneland rift, And rolling downe, great Neptune doth dismay; So downe he fell, and like an heaped mountaine lay. [55]The knight him selfe eueneven trembled at his fall, So huge and horrible a masse it seemd; And his deare Lady, that beheld it all, Durst not approch for dread, which she misdeemd, But yet at last, whenas the direfull feend She saw not stirre, of-shaking vaine affright, She nigher drew, and saw that ioyousjoyous end: Then God she praysd, and thankt her faithfull knight, That had atchieudeatchievde so great a conquest by his might.
2.4. at] 1596, 1609, 1590FE; it 1590
And pointing forth, lo yonder is (ſaidsaid ſ⁀heshe) The braſenbrasen towre in which my parents deare For dread of that huge feend empriſonedemprisoned be Whom I from far, ſeesee on the walles appeare Whoſe ſ⁀ightsight my feeble ſoulesoule doth greatly cheare: And on the top of all I do eſpyeespye The watchman wayting tydings glad to heare, That on my parents might I happily VntoUnto you bring, to eaſeease you of your miſerymisery. ] 1596; [stanza missing] 1590, ; And pointing forth, lo, yonder is (ſaid ſhe) The braſen towre, in which my parents deare For dread of that huge fiend empriſoned be, Whom I from far, ſee on the walls appeare, Whoſe ſight my feeble ſoule doth greatly cheare: And on the top of all, I do eſpy The watchman waiting, tydings glad to heare, That (on my parents) might I happily Vnto you bring, to eaſe you of your miſery. 1609
4.5. ſtretchtstretcht ] 1590, 1609; ſtretchstretch 1596
5.1. badd the knight his] 1590FE; badd the knight this 1590, ; bad the knight this 1596, ; bade the knight this 1609
5.5. wyde.] 1596; wyde, 1590, ; wide. 1609
6.9. ſcaredscared ] 1590FE; feared 1590, 1596, 1609
8.7. vaste] this edn.; vaſte,vaste, 1590, ; waſt,wast, 1596, ; vaſt,vast, 1609
9.1. over all] this edn.; ouer, allover, all 1590, 1596, 1609
9.4. ſpeare,speare, ] 1590; ſpeare;speare; 1596, 1609
10.5. lynd,] 1596; kynd, 1590, ; lin'd 1609
11.4. ſ⁀lack;slack; ] 1609; ſ⁀lack,slack, 1590, ; ſ⁀lack.slack. 1596
11.5. as] 1590FE; all 1590, 1596, 1609
14.4. off] 1596, 1609; of 1590
18.5. vnſoundunſoundvnsoundunsound ] 1590, 1609; vnfoundunfound 1596
22.7. augmented] 1596, 1609; angmented 1590
23.8. off] 1596, 1609; of 1590
25.1. wroth] 1590, 1609; wrath 1596
25.4. light,] this edn.; light; 1590, 1596, 1609
25.5. pight;] this edn.; pight, 1590, ; pight. 1596, 1609
27.2. vaunt] 1590; daunt 1596, 1609
30.5. one] 1590FE; it 1590, 1596, 1609
33.2. race] 1590 state 2; tace 1590 state 1, ; race 1596, 1609
34.9. new] 1590 state 2,3; new 1590, 1609, ; vew 1590 state 1
35.1. ſpy,spy, ] 1590, 1609; ſpy.spy. 1596
39.4. ſtingsting ] 1590; ſtringstring 1596, 1609
39.7. ſtringstring ] 1590; ſtingsting 1596, 1609
42.9. thereby] 1596, 1609; threby 1590
48.9. Into] 1590 state 3,None; Inio 1590 state 1,2
49.6. yield] 1590 state 3; yied 1590 state 1,2, ; yeeld 1596, 1609
51.2. the] 1590; her 1596, 1609
54.3. th'earth] 1590 state 2; the'arth 1590 state 1, ; th'earth 1596, 1609
Editorial policy for this edition is to silently close up compounds, there being no warrant to assume that details like spacing and orthography reflect authorial intention. We make an exception here because it is just possible that the 1590 reading accurately renders copy that gave an outdated form deliberately as part of the effort to lend an archaic feel to the language. "Ther to" and "there to" are at least as frequent as "thereto" in Medieval texts; the close-up form appears to have become standard during the sixteenth century.
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Introduction

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Textual Changes

The vagaries of early modern printing often required that lines or words be broken. Toggling Modern Lineation on will reunite divided words and set errant words in their lines.

Off: That a large share it hewd out of the rest, (blest. And glauncing downe his shield, from blame him fairely (FQ I.ii.18.8-9) On: That a large share it hewd out of the rest, And glauncing downe his shield, from blame him fairely blest.

Toggling Expansions on will undo certain early modern abbreviations.

Off: Sweet slõbring deaw, the which to sleep them biddes: (FQ I.i.36.4)

Toggling Modern Characters on will convert u, v, i, y, and vv to v, u, j, i, and w. (N.B. the editors have silently replaced ſ with s, expanded most ligatures, and adjusted spacing according contemporary norms.)

Off: And all the world in their subiection held, Till that infernall feend with foule vprore (FQ I.i.5.6-7) On: And all the world in their subjection held, Till that infernall feend with foule uprore

Toggling Lexical Modernizations on will conform certain words to contemporary orthographic standards.

Off: But wander too and fro in waies vnknowne (FQ I.i.10.5) On: But wander to and fro in waies vnknowne.

Toggling Emendations on will correct obvious errors in the edition on which we base our text and modernize its most unfamiliar features.

Most lothsom, filthie, foule, and full of vile disdaine (FQ I.i.14.9) 14.9. Most lothsom] this edn.; Mostlothsom 1590

(The text of 1590 reads Mostlothsom, while the editors’ emendation reads Most lothsom.)

Apparatus

Toggling Collation Notes on will highlight words that differ among printings.

And shall thee well rewarde to shew the place, (FQ I.i.31.5) 5. thee] 1590; you 15961609

(The text of 1590 reads thee, while the texts of 1596 and 1609 read you.)

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Toggling Stanza Numbers on will show the number of the stanza within each canto.

Toggling Glosses on will show the definitions of unfamiliar words or phrases.

To my long approoved and singular good frende, Master G.H. (Letters I.1) 1. long aprooved: tried and true, found trustworthy over a long period