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Canto I.
The Patrone of true Holinesse,
Foule Errour doth defeate:
Hypocrisie him to entrappe,
Doth to his home entreate.
[1]
A gentle Knight was pricking on the plaine,
Ycladd in mightie armes and siluersilver shielde,
Wherein old dints of deepe woundes did remaine,
The cruell markes of many' bloody fielde;
Yet armes till that time did he neuernever wield:
His angry steede did chide his foming bitt,
As much disdayning to the curbe to yield:
Full iollyjolly knight he seemd, and faire did sitt,
As one for knightly giusts and fierce encounters fitt.
[2]
AndBut on his brest a bloodie Crosse he bore,
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord,
For whose sweete sake that glorious badge he wore,
And dead as liuingliving euerever him ador'd:
VponUpon his shield the like was also scor'd,
For souerainesoveraine hope, which in his helpe he had:
Right faithfull true he was in deede and word,
But of his cheere did seeme too solemne sad;
Yet nothing did he dread, but euerever was ydrad.
[3]
VponUpon a great aduentureadventure he was bond,
That greatest Gloriana to him gauegave,
That greatest Glorious Queene of Faery lond,
To winne him worshippe, and her grace to hauehave,
Which of all earthly thinges he most did crauecrave;
And euerever as he rode his hart did earne,
To proueprove his puissance in battell brauebrave
VponUpon his foe, and his new force to learne;
VponUpon his foe, a Dragon horrible and stearne.
[4]
A louelylovely Ladie rode him faire beside,
VponUpon a lowly Asse more white 4.2. then: thanthenthan snow,
Yet she much whiter, but the same did hide
VnderUnder a vele, that wimpled was full low,
And ouerover all a blacke stole shee did throw,
As one that inly mournd: so was she sad,
And heauieheavie sate vponupon her palfrey slow:
Seemed in heart some hidden care she had;
And by her in a line a milkewhite lambe she lad.
[5]
So pure andan innocent, as that same lambe,
She was in life and eueryevery vertuous lore,
And by descent from Royall lynage came
Of ancient Kinges and Queenes, that had of yore
Their scepters stretcht from East to Westerne shore,
And all the world in their subiectionsubjection held,
Till that infernall feend with foule vproreuprore
Forwasted all their land, and them expeld:
Whom to auengeavenge, she had this Knight from far cõpeldcompeld.
[6]
Behind her farre away a Dwarfe did lag,
That lasie seemd in being euerever last,
Or wearied with bearing of her bag
Of needments at his backe. Thus as they past,
The day with cloudes was suddeine ouercastovercast,
And angry IoueJove an hideous storme of raine
Did poure into his Lemans lap so fast,
That euerieeverie wight to shrowd it did constrain,
And this faire couple eke to shroud thẽseluesthemseluesthẽselvesthemselves were fain.
[7]
Enforst to seeke some couertcovert nigh at hand,
A shadie grouegrove not farr away they spide,
That promist ayde the tempest to withstand:
Whose loftie trees yclad with sommers pride,
Did spred so broad, that heauensheavens light did hide,
Not perceable with power of any starr:
And all within were pathes and alleies wide,
With footing worne, and leading inward farr:
Faire harbour that them seemes, so in they entred ar.
[8]
And foorth they passe, with pleasure forward led,
IoyingJoying to heare the birdes sweete harmony,
Which therein shrouded from the tempest dred,
Seemd in their song to scorne the cruell sky.
Much can they praise the trees so straight and hy,
The sayling Pine, the Cedar proud and tall,
The vine-propp Elme, the Poplar neuernever dry,
The builder Oake, sole king of forrests all,
The Aspine good for stauesstaves, the Cypresse funerall.
[9]
The Laurell, meed of mightie Conquerours
And Poets sage, the Firre that weepeth still,
The Willow worne of forlorne Paramours,
The Eugh obedient to the benders will,
The Birch for shaftes, the Sallow for the mill,
The Mirrhe sweete bleeding in the bitter wound,
The warlike Beech, the Ash for nothing ill,
The fruitfull OliueOlive, and the Platane round,
The caruercarver Holme, the Maple seeldom inward sound.
[10]
Led with delight, they thus beguile the way,
VntillUntill the blustring storme is ouerblowneoverblowne;
When weening to returne, whence they did stray,
TheyThe, cannot finde that path, which first was showne,
But wander 10.5. too: totooto and fro in waies vnknowneunknowne,
Furthest from end then, when they neerest weene,
That makes thẽthem doubt, their wits be not their owne:
So many pathes, so many turnings seene,
That which of them to take, in diuersediverse doubt they been.
[11]
At last resoluingresolving forward still to fare,
Till that some end they finde or in or out,
That path they take, that beaten seemd most bare,
And like to lead the labyrinth about;
Which when by tract they hunted had throughout,
At length it brought them to a hollowe cauecave
Amid the thickest woods. The Champion stout
Eftsoones dismounted from his courser brauebrave,
And to the Dwarfe a while his needlesse spere he gauegave.
[12]
Be well aware, quoth then that Ladie milde,
Least suddaine mischiefe ye too rash prouokeprovoke:
The danger hid, the place vnknowneunknowne and wilde,
Breedes dreadfull doubts: Oft fire is without smoke,
And perill without show: therefore your strokeyour hardy stroke
Sir knight with-hold, till further tryall made.
Ah Ladie (sayd he) shame were to reuokerevoke,
The forward footing for an hidden shade:
Vertue giuesgives her selfe light, through darkenesse for to wade.
[13]
Yea but (quoth she) the perill of this place
I better wot 13.2. then: thanthenthan you, though nowe too late,
To wish you backe returne with foule disgrace,
Yet wisedome warnes, whilest foot is in the gate,
To stay the steppe, ere forced to retrate.
This is the wandring wood, this Errours den,
A monster vile, whom God and man does hate:
Therefore I read beware. Fly fly (quoth then
The fearefull Dwarfe:)Dwarfe): this is no place for liuingliving men.
[14]
But full of fire and greedy hardiment,
The youthfull knight could not for ought be staide,
But forth vntounto the darksom hole he went,
And looked in: his glistring armor made
A litle glooming light, much like a shade,
By which he saw the vglyugly monster plaine,
Halfe like a serpent horribly displaide,
But th'other halfe did womans shape retaine,
Most lothsomMostlothsom, filthie, foule, and full of vile disdaine.
[15]
And as she lay vponupon the durtie ground,
Her huge long taile her den all ouerspredoverspred,
Yet was in knots and many boughtes vpwoundupwound,
Pointed with mortall sting. Of her there bred,
A thousand yong ones, which she dayly fed,
Sucking vponupon her poisnous dugs, eachoneeach one
Of sundrie shapes, yet all ill fauoredfavored:
Soone as that vncouthuncouth light vponupon them shone,
Into her mouth they crept, and suddain all were gone.
[16]
Their dam vpstartupstart, out of her den effraide,
And rushed forth, hurling her hideous taile
About her cursed head, whose folds displaid
Were stretcht now forth at length without entraile,
She lookt about, and seeing one in mayle
Armed to point, sought backe to turne againe;
For light she hated as the deadly bale,
Ay wont in desert darknes to remaine,
Where plain none might her see, nor she see any plaine.
[17]
Which when the valiant Elfe perceiu'dperceiv'd, he lept
As Lyon fierce vponupon the flying pray,
And with his trenchand blade her boldly kept
From turning backe, and forced her to stay:
Therewith enrag'd, she loudly gan to bray,
And turning fierce, her speckled taile aduaunstadvaunst,
Threatning her angrie sting, him to dismay:
Who nought aghast, his mightie hand enhaunst:
The stroke down frõfrom her head vntounto her shoulder glaunst. glaunſtglaunst
[18]
Much daunted with that dint, her sence was dazd,
Yet kindling rage her selfe she gathered round,
And all attonce her beastly bodie raizd
With doubled forces high aboueabove the ground:
Tho wrapping vpup her wrethed sterne arownd,
Lept fierce vponupon his shield, and her huge traine
All suddenly about his body wound,
That hand or foot to stirr he strouestrove in vaine:
God helpe the man so wrapt in Errours endlesse traine.
[19]
His Lady sad to see his sore constraint,
Cride out, Now now Sir knight, shew what ye bee
Add faith vntounto your force, and be not faint:
Strangle her, els she sure will strangle thee.
That when he heard, in great perplexitie,
His gall did grate for griefe and high disdaine,
And knitting all his force got one hand free,
Wherewith he grypt her gorge with so great paine,
That soone to loose her wicked bands did her cõstraineconstraine.
[20]
Therewith she spewd out of her filthie maw
A floud of poyson horrible and blacke,
Full of great lumps of flesh and gobbets raw,
Which stunck so vildly that it forst him slacke,slacke,'
His grasping hold, and fromftom her turne him backe:
Her vomit full of bookes and papers was,
With loathly frogs and toades, which eyes did lacke,
And creeping sought way in the weedy gras:
Her filthie parbreake all the place defiled has.
[21]
As when old father Nilus gins to swell
With timely pride aboueabove the Aegyptian vale,
His fattie waueswaves doe fertile slime outwell,
And ouerflowoverflow each plaine and lowly dale:
But when his later spring gins to avaleebbe gins t'aualeebbe gins to aualeebbe gins to avale,
Huge heapes of mudd he leauesleaves, wherin there breed
Ten thousand kindes of creatures partly male
And partly femall of his fruitful seed;
Such vglyugly monstrous shapes elswher may no man reed.
[22]
The same so sore annoyed has the knight,
That welnigh choked with the deadly stinke,
His forces faile, ne can no lenger fight.
Whose corage when the feend perceiudperceivd to shrinke,
She poured forth out of her hellish sinke
Her fruitfull cursed spawne of serpents small,
Deformed monsters, fowle, and blacke as inke,
Which swarming all about his legs did crall,
And him encombred sore, but could not hurt at all.
[23]
As gentle Shepheard in sweete euentideeventide,
When ruddy Phebus gins to welke in west,
High on an hill, his flocke to vewen wide,
Markes which doe byte their hasty supper best,
A cloud of cumbrous gnattes doe him molest,
All striuingstriving to infixe their feeble stinges,
That from their noyance he no where can rest,
But with his clownish hands their tender wings,
He brusheth oft, and oft doth mar their murmurings.
[24]
Thus ill bestedd, and fearefull more of shame,
24.2. Then: ThanThenThan of the certeine perill he stood in,
Halfe furious vntounto his foe he came,
ResoludResolvd in minde all suddenly to win,
Or soone to lose, before he once would lin;
And stroke at her with more 24.6. then: thanthenthan manly force,
That from her body full of filthie sin
He raft her hatefull heade without remorse;
A streame of cole black blood forth gushed frõfrom her corse.corse
[25]
Her scattred brood, soone as their Parent deare
They saw so rudely falling to the ground,
Groning full deadly, all with troublous feare,
Gathred themseluesthemselves about her body round,
Weening their wonted entrance to hauehave found
At her wide mouth: but being there withstood
They flocked all about her bleeding wound,
And sucked vpup their dying mothers bloud,
Making her death their life, and eke her hurt their good.
[26]
That detestable sight him much amazde,
To see th'vnkindlyunkindly Impes of heauenheaven accurst,
DeuoureDevoure their dam; on whom while so he gazd,
HauingHaving all satisfide their bloudy thurst,
Their bellies swolne he saw with fulnesse burst,
And bowels gushing forth: well worthy end
Of such as drunke her life, the which them nurst;
Now needeth him no lenger labour spend,
His foes hauehave slaine themseluesthemselves, with whom he should contend.
[27]
His Lady seeing all, that chaunst, from farre
Approcht in hast to greet his victorie,
And saide, Faire knight, borne vnderunder happie starre,
Who see your vanquisht foes before you lye:
Well worthie be you of that Armory,
Wherein ye hauehave great glory wonne this day,
And proou'dproov'd your strength on a strong enimie,
Your first aduentureadventure: many such I pray,
And henceforth euerever wish, that like succeed it may.
[28]
Then mounted he vponupon his Steede againe,
And with the Lady backward sought to wend;
That path he kept, which beaten was most plaine,
Ne euerever would to any byway bend,
But still did follow one vntounto the end,
The which at last out of the wood them brought.
So forward on his way (with God to frend)
He paſ⁀ſedpassed paſ⁀ſethpasseth forth, and new aduentureadventure sought,
Long way he traueiledtraveiled, before he heard of ought.
[29]
At length they chaunst to meet vponupon the way
An aged Sire, in long blacke weedes yclad,
His feete all bare, his beard all hoarie gray,
And by his belt his booke he hanging had;
Sober he seemde, and very sagely sad,
And to the ground his eyes were lowly bent,
Simple in shew, and voide of malice bad,
And all the way he prayed as he went,
And often knockt his brest, as one that did repent.
[30]
He faire the knight saluted, louting low,
Who faire him quited, as that courteous was:
And after asked him, if he did know
Of straunge aduenturesadventures, which abroad did pas.
Ah my deare Sonne (quoth he) how should, alas,
Silly old man, that liueslives in hidden cell,
Bidding his beades all day for his trespas,
Tydings of warre and worldly trouble tell?
With holy father sits not with such thinges to mell.
[31]
But if of daunger which hereby doth dwell,
And homebredd euilhomebredd evil homebred deuilhomebred devil ye desire to heare,
That wasteth all this countrie farre and neare.
Of such (saide he) I chiefly doe inquere,
And shall theeyou well rewarde to shew the place,
In which that wicked wight his dayes doth weare:
For to all knighthood it is foule disgrace,
That such a cursed creature liueslives so long a space.
[32]
Far hence (quoth he) in wastfull wildernesse
His dwelling is, by which no liuingliving wight
May euerever passe, but thorough great distresse.
Now (saide the Ladie) draweth toward night,
And well I wote, that of your later fight
Ye all forwearied be: for what so strong,
But wanting rest will also want of might?
The Sunne that measures heauenheaven all day long,
At night doth baite his steedes the Ocean waueswaves emong.
[33]
Then with the Sunne take Sir, your timely rest,
And with new day new worke at once begin:
VntroubledUntroubled night they say giuesgives counsell best.
Right well Sir knight ye hauehave aduisedadvised bin,
Quoth then that aged man; the way to win
Is wisely to aduiseadvise: now day is spent;
Therefore with me ye may take vpup your In
For this same night. The knight was well content:
So with that godly father to his home they went.
[34]
A litle lowly Hermitage it was,
Downe in a dale, hard by a forests side,
Far from resort of people, that did pas
In traueilltraveill to and froe: a litle wyde
There was an holy chappell edifyde,
Wherein the Hermite dewly wont to say
His holy thinges each morne and euentydeeventyde:
Thereby a christall streame did gentlygenlty play,
Which from a sacred fountaine welled forth alway.
[35]
ArriuedArrived there the litle house they fill,
Ne looke for entertainement, where none was:
Rest is their feast, and all thinges at their will;
The noblest mind the best contentment has.
With faire discourse the eueningevening so they pas:
For that olde man of pleasing wordes had store,
And well could file his tongue as smooth as glas,
He told of Saintes and Popes, and euermoreevermore euemoreevemore
He strowd an Aue-MaryAve-Mary after and before.
[36]
The drouping Night thus creepeth on them fast,
And the sad humor loading their eye liddes,
As messenger of Morpheus on them cast
Sweet slõbringslombring deaw, the which to sleep them biddes:
VntoUnto their lodgings then his guestes he riddes:
Where when all drownd in deadly sleepe he findes,
He to his studie goes, and there amiddes
His magick bookes and artes of sundrie kindes,
He seekes out mighty charmes, to trouble sleepy minds.
[37]
Then choosing out few words most horrible,
(Let none them read) thereof did verses frame,
With which and other spelles like terrible,
He bad awake blacke Plutoes griesly Dame,
And cursed heuen, and spake reprochful shame
Of highest God, the Lord of life and light,
A bold bad man, that dar'd to call by name
Great Gorgon, prince of darknes and dead night,
At which Cocytus quakes and Styx is put to flight.
[38]
And forth he cald out of deepe darknes dredd
Legions of Sprights, the which like litle flyes
Fluttring about his euerdamnedeverdamned hedd,
A waiteAwaite whereto their seruiceservice he applyes,
To aide his friendes, or fray his enimies:
Of those he chose out two, the falsest twoo,
And fittest for to forge true-seeming lyes;
The one of them he gauegave a message too,
The other by himselfe staide other worke to doo.
[39]
He making speedy way through spersed ayre,
And through the world of waters wide and deepe,
To Morpheus house doth hastily repaire.
Amid the bowels of the earth full steepe,
And low, where dawning day doth neuernever peepe,
His dwelling is; there Tethys his wet bed
Doth euerever wash, and Cynthia still doth steepe
In siluersilver deaw his euer-droupingever-drouping euer droupingever drouping hed,
Whiles sad Night ouerover him her mãtlemantle black doth spred.
[40]
Whose double gates he findeth locked fast,
The one faire fram'd of burnisht YuoryYvory,
The other all with siluersilver ouercastovercast;
And wakeful dogges before them farre doe lye,
Watching to banish Care their enimy,
Who oft is wont to trouble gentle Sleepe.
By them the Sprite doth passe in quietly,
And vntounto Morpheus comes, whom drowned deepe
In drowsie fit he findes: of nothing he takes keepe.
[41]
And more, to lulle him in his slumber soft,
A trickling streame from high rock tumbling downe
And euery drizlingevery drizling euer drizlingever drizling euer-drizlingever-drizling raine vponupon the loft,
Mixt with a murmuring winde, much like the sowne
Of swarming Bees, did cast him in a swowne:
No other noyse, nor peoples troublous cryes,
As still are wont t'annoy the walled towne,
Might there be heard: but carelesse Quiet lyes,
Wrapt in eternall silence farre from enimyes.
[42]
The Messenger approching to him spake,
But his waste wordes retournd to him in vaine:
So sound he slept, that nought mought him awake.
Then rudely he him thruſtthrust truſttrust , and pusht with paine,
Whereat he gan to stretch: but he againe
Shooke him so hard, that forced him to speake.
As one then in a dreame, whose dryer braine
Is tost with troubled ſightssights ſighessighes and fancies weake,
He mumbled soft, but would not all his silence breake.
[43]
The Sprite then gan more boldly him to wake,
And threatned vntounto him the dreaded name
Of Hecate: whereat he gan to quake,
And lifting vpup his lompish head, with blame
Halfe angrie asked him, for what he came.
Hether (quoth he) me Archimago sent,
He that the stubborne Sprites can wisely tame,
He bids thee to him send for his intent
A fit false dreame, that can delude the sleepers sent.
[44]
The God obayde, and calling forth straight way
A diuersediverse dreame out of his prison darke,
DeliueredDelivered it to him, and downe did lay
His heauieheavie head, deuoidedevoide of careful carke,
Whose sences all were straight benumbd and starke.
He backe returning by the YuorieYvorie dore,
Remounted vpup as light as chearefull Larke,
And on his litle winges the dreame he bore,
In hast vntounto his Lord, where he him left afore.
[45]
Who all this while with charmes and hidden artes,
Had made a Lady of that other Spright,
And fram'd of liquid ayre her tender partes
So liuelylively and so like in all mens sight,
That weaker sence it could hauehave rauishtravisht quight:
The maker selfe for all his wondrous witt,
Was nigh beguiled with so goodly sight:
Her all in white he clad, and ouerover it
Cast a blackstoleblack stole, most like to seeme for VnaUna fit.
[46]
Now when that ydle dreame was to him brought,
VntoUnto that Elfin knight he bad him fly,
Where he slept soundly void of euilevil thought,
And with false shewes abuse his fantasy,
In sort as he him schooled priuilyprivily:
And that new creature borne without her dew,
Full of the makers guyle with vsageusage sly
He taught to imitate that Lady trew,
Whose semblance she did carrie vnderunder feigned hew.
[47]
Thus well instructed, to their worke they haste,
And comming where the knight in slomber lay,
The one vponupon his hardie head him plaste,
And made him dreame of louesloves and lustfull play,
That nigh his manly hart did melt away,
Bathed in wanton blis and wicked ioyjoy:
Then seemed him his Lady by him lay,
And to him playnd, how that false winged boy,
Her chaste hart had subdewd, to learne Dame pleasures toy.
[48]
And she her selfe of beautie soueraignesoveraigne Queene,
Fayre Venus seemde vntounto his bed to bring
Her, whom he waking euermoreevermore did weene,
To bee the chastest flowre, that aye did spring
On earthly braunch, the daughter of a king,
Now a loose Leman to vile seruiceservice bound:
And eke the Graces seemed all to sing,
Hymen iö́ Hymen, dauncing all around,
Whylst freshest Flora her with Yuieher with Yvieher Yuieher Yvie girlond crownd.
[49]
In this great passion of vnwontedunwonted lust,
Or wonted feare of doing ought amis,
He ſtartethstarteth ſtartedstarted vpup, as seeming to mistrust,
Some secret ill, or hidden foe of his:
Lo there before his face his Ladie is,
VnderUnder blacke stole hyding her bayted hooke,
And as halfe blushing offred him to kis,
With gentle blandishment and louelylovely looke,
Most like that virgin true, which for her knight him took.tooktooke.
[50]
All cleane dismayd to see so vncouthuncouth sight,
And halfe enraged at her shamelesse guise,
He thought hauehave slaine her in his fierce despight,
But hastie heat tempring with sufferance wise,
He stayde his hand, and gan himselfe aduiseadvise
To proueprove his sense, and tempt her faigned truth.
Wringing her hands in wemens pitteous wise,
Tho can she weepe, to stirre vpup gentle ruth,
Both for her noble blood, and for her tender youth.
[51]
And sayd, Ah Sir, my liege Lord and my louelove,
Shall I accuse the hidden cruell fate,
And mightie causes wrought in heauenheaven aboueabove,
Or the blind God, that doth me thus amate,
For hoped louelove to winne me certaine hate?
Yet thus perforce he bids me do, or die.
Die is my dew: yet rew my wretched state
You, whom my hard auengingavenging destinie
Hath made iudgejudge of my life or death indifferently.
[52]
Your owne deare sake forst me at first to leaueleave
My Fathers kingdom, There she stopt with teares;
Her swollen hart her speech seemd to bereauebereave,
And then againe begonne, My weaker yeares
Captiu'dCaptiv'd to fortune and frayle worldly feares
Fly to your fayth for succour and sure ayde:
Let me not die in languor and long teares.
Why Dame (quoth he) what hath ye thus dismayd?
What frayes ye, that were wont to comfort me affrayd?
[53]
LoueLove of your selfe, she saide, and deare constraint
Lets me not sleepe, but waste the wearie night
In secret anguish and vnpittiedunpittied plaint,
Whiles you in carelesse sleepe are drowned quight.
Her doubtfull words made that redoubted knight
Suspect her truth: yet since no'vntruthno'untruth he knew,
Her fawning louelove with foule disdainefull spight
He would not shend, but said, Deare dame I rew,
That for my sake vnknowneunknowne such griefe vntounto you grew.
[54]
Assure your selfe, it fell not all to ground;
For all so deare as life is to my hart,
I deeme your louelove, and hold me to you bound;
Ne let vaine feares procure your needlesse smart,
Where cause is none, but to your rest depart.
Not all content, yet seemd she to appease
Her mournefull plaintes, beguiled of her art,
And fed with words, that could not choſechose chuſechuse but please,
So slyding softly forth, she turnd as to her ease.
[55]
Long after lay he musing at her mood,
Much grieu'dgriev'd to thinke that gentle Dame so light,
For whose defence he was to shed his blood.
At last dull wearines of former fight
HauingHaving yrockt a sleepeasleepe his irkesome spright,
That troublous dreame gan freshly tosse his braine,
With bowres, and beds, and ladies deare delight:
But when he saw his labour all was vaine,
With that misformed spright he backe returnd againe.
2.1. And] 1590; But 1596, 1609
5.1. and] 1590; an 1596, 1609
10.4. They] 1590, 1609; The, 1596
12.5. your stroke] 1590FE; your hardy stroke 1590, 1596, 1609
14.9. Most lothsom] this edn.; Mostlothsom 1590
17.9. glaunst. ] 1596, 1609; glaunſtglaunst 1590
20.4. slacke,] this edn.; slacke,' 1590
20.5. from] 1596, 1609; ftom 1590
21.5. spring gins to avale] 1590FE; ebbe gins t'auale 1590, ; ebbe gins to auale 1596, ; ebbe gins to avale 1609
24.9. corse.] this edn.; corse 1590
28.8. paſ⁀ſedpassed ] 1590; paſ⁀ſethpasseth 1596, 1609
31.2. homebredd euilhomebredd evil ] 1590 state 2,3; homebred deuilhomebred devil 1590 state 1
31.5. thee] 1590; you 1596, 1609
34.8. gently] 1590, 1609; genlty 1596
35.8. euermoreevermore ] 1590, 1609; euemoreevemore 1596
39.8. euer-droupingever-drouping ] 1590 state 2,3; euer droupingever drouping 1590 state 1
41.3. euery drizlingevery drizling ] 1590; euer drizlingever drizling 1590FE, ; euer-drizlingever-drizling 1596, 1609
42.4. thruſtthrust ] 1590, 1609; truſttrust 1596
42.8. ſightssights ] 1590FE, 1596, 1609; ſighessighes 1590
48.9. her with Yuieher with Yvie] 1590; her Yuieher Yvie 1596, 1609
49.3. ſtartethstarteth ] 1590; ſtartedstarted 1596, 1609
49.9. took.] 1596; took 1590, ; tooke. 1609
54.8. choſechose ] 1590; chuſechuse 1596, 1609
Editorial policy for this edition is to silently close up compounds, there being no warrant to assume that details like spacing and orthography reflect authorial intention. We make an exception here because it is just possible that the 1590 reading accurately renders copy that gave an outdated form deliberately as part of the effort to lend an archaic feel to the language. "Ther to" and "there to" are at least as frequent as "thereto" in Medieval texts; the close-up form appears to have become standard during the sixteenth century.
Building display . . .
Re-selecting textual changes . . .

Introduction

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Textual Changes

The vagaries of early modern printing often required that lines or words be broken. Toggling Modern Lineation on will reunite divided words and set errant words in their lines.

Off: That a large share it hewd out of the rest, (blest. And glauncing downe his shield, from blame him fairely (FQ I.ii.18.8-9) On: That a large share it hewd out of the rest, And glauncing downe his shield, from blame him fairely blest.

Toggling Expansions on will undo certain early modern abbreviations.

Off: Sweet slõbring deaw, the which to sleep them biddes: (FQ I.i.36.4)

Toggling Modern Characters on will convert u, v, i, y, and vv to v, u, j, i, and w. (N.B. the editors have silently replaced ſ with s, expanded most ligatures, and adjusted spacing according contemporary norms.)

Off: And all the world in their subiection held, Till that infernall feend with foule vprore (FQ I.i.5.6-7) On: And all the world in their subjection held, Till that infernall feend with foule uprore

Toggling Lexical Modernizations on will conform certain words to contemporary orthographic standards.

Off: But wander too and fro in waies vnknowne (FQ I.i.10.5) On: But wander to and fro in waies vnknowne.

Toggling Emendations on will correct obvious errors in the edition on which we base our text and modernize its most unfamiliar features.

Most lothsom, filthie, foule, and full of vile disdaine (FQ I.i.14.9) 14.9. Most lothsom] this edn.; Mostlothsom 1590

(The text of 1590 reads Mostlothsom, while the editors’ emendation reads Most lothsom.)

Apparatus

Toggling Collation Notes on will highlight words that differ among printings.

And shall thee well rewarde to shew the place, (FQ I.i.31.5) 5. thee] 1590; you 15961609

(The text of 1590 reads thee, while the texts of 1596 and 1609 read you.)

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Toggling Stanza Numbers on will show the number of the stanza within each canto.

Toggling Glosses on will show the definitions of unfamiliar words or phrases.

To my long approoved and singular good frende, Master G.H. (Letters I.1) 1. long aprooved: tried and true, found trustworthy over a long period